The effect of dental material type and masticatory forces on periodontitis-derived subgingival microbiomes

Carolina Montoya, Divyashri Baraniya, Tsute Chen, Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Santiago Orrego

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Restorative dental materials can frequently extend below the gingival margin, serving as a potential haven for microbial colonization, and altering the local oral microbiome to ignite infection. However, the contribution of dental materials on driving changes of the composition of the subgingival microbiome is under-investigated. This study evaluated the microbiome-modulating properties of three biomaterials, namely resin dental composites (COM), antimicrobial piezoelectric composites (BTO), and hydroxyapatite (HA), using an optimized in vitro subgingival microbiome model derived from patients with periodontal disease. Dental materials were subjected to static or cyclic loading (mastication forces) during biofilm growth. Microbiome composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Dysbiosis was measured in terms of subgingival microbial dysbiosis index (SMDI). Biomaterials subjected to cyclic masticatory loads were associated with enhanced biofilm viability except on the antibacterial composite. Biomaterials held static were associated with increased biofilm biomass, especially on HA surfaces. Overall, the microbiome richness (Chao index) was similar for all the biomaterials and loading conditions. However, the microbiome diversity (Shannon index) for the HA beams was significantly different than both composites. In addition, beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences between composites and HA biomaterials, and between both loading conditions (static and cyclic). Under static conditions, microbiomes formed over HA surfaces resulted in increased dysbiosis compared to composites through the enrichment of periopathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Fretibacterium spp., and depletion of commensals such as Granulicatella and Streptococcus spp. Interestingly, cyclic loading reversed the dysbiosis of microbiomes formed over HA (depletion of periopathogenes) but increased the dysbiosis of microbiomes formed over composites (enrichment of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterim nucleatum). Comparison of species formed on both composites (control and antibacterial) showed some differences. Commercial composites enriched Selenomonas spp. and depleted Campylobacter concisus. Piezoelectric composites effectively controlled the microbiome viability without significantly impacting the species abundance. Findings of this work open new understandings of the effects of different biomaterials on the modulation of oral biofilms and the relationship with oral subgingival infections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100199
Pages (from-to)100199
StatePublished - Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Barium titanate
  • Biofilm
  • Biomaterial-microbiome interactions
  • Biomaterials
  • Composites
  • Dental materials
  • Dysbiosis
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Microbiota
  • Oral infections
  • Oral microbiome
  • Periodontitis
  • Piezoelectric
  • Subgingival


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