Objective: Concern exists regarding surgery after thoracic radiation. We aimed to assess early results of anatomic resection following induction therapy with platinum-based chemotherapy and full-dose thoracic radiation for resectable N2+ stage IIIA non–small cell lung cancer. Methods: Two prospective trials were recently conducted by NRG Oncology in patients with resectable N2+ stage IIIA non–small cell lung cancer with the primary end point of mediastinal node sterilization following concurrent full-dose chemoradiotherapy (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trials 0229 and 0839). All surgeons demonstrated postinduction resection expertise. Induction consisted of weekly carboplatin (area under the curve, 2.0) and paclitaxel (50 mg/m2) and concurrent thoracic radiation 60 Gy (0839)/61.2 Gy (0229) in 30 fractions. Patients in study 0839 were randomized 2:1 to weekly panitumumab + chemoradiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy alone during induction. Primary results were similar in all treatment arms and reported previously. Short-term surgical outcomes are reported here. Results: One hundred twenty-six patients enrolled; 93 (74%) had anatomic resection, 77 underwent lobectomy, and 16 underwent extended resection. Microscopically margin-negative resections occurred in 85 (91%). Fourteen (15%) resections were attempted minimally invasively, including 2 converted without event. Grade 3 or 4 surgical adverse events were reported in 26 (28%), 30-day mortality in 4 (4%) and 90-day mortality in 5 (5%). Patients undergoing extended resection experienced similar rates of grade 3 or 4 adverse events (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-3.8) but higher 30-day (1.3% vs 18.8%) (odds ratio, 17.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.75-181.8) and 90-day mortality (2.6% vs 18.8%) (odds ratio, 8.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-56.9). Conclusions: Lobectomy was performed safely following full-dose concurrent chemoradiotherapy in these multi-institutional prospective trials; however, increased mortality was noted with extended resections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1331-1345.e1
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology
  • Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms/pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumonectomy/adverse effects
  • Postoperative Complications/epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies


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