Protein-rich foods, sea foods, and gut microbiota amplify immune responses in chronic diseases and cancers - Targeting PERK as a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer

Fatma Saaoud, Yifan Lu, Keman Xu, Ying Shao, Domenico Praticò, Roberto I Vazquez-Padron, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle that is physiologically responsible for protein folding, calcium homeostasis, and lipid biosynthesis. Pathological stimuli such as oxidative stress, ischemia, disruptions in calcium homeostasis, and increased production of normal and/or folding-defective proteins all contribute to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, causing ER stress. The adaptive response to ER stress is the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), which affect a wide variety of cellular functions to maintain ER homeostasis or lead to apoptosis. Three different ER transmembrane sensors, including PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1), are responsible for initiating UPR. The UPR involves a variety of signal transduction pathways that reduce unfolded protein accumulation by boosting ER-resident chaperones, limiting protein translation, and accelerating unfolded protein degradation. ER is now acknowledged as a critical organelle in sensing dangers and determining cell life and death. On the other hand, UPR plays a critical role in the development and progression of several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), metabolic disorders, chronic kidney diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. Here, we critically analyze the most current knowledge of the master regulatory roles of ER stress particularly the PERK pathway as a conditional danger receptor, an organelle crosstalk regulator, and a regulator of protein translation. We highlighted that PERK is not only ER stress regulator by sensing UPR and ER stress but also a frontier sensor and direct senses for gut microbiota-generated metabolites. Our work also further highlighted the function of PERK as a central hub that leads to metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic modification which further enhanced inflammatory response and promoted trained immunity. Moreover, we highlighted the contribution of ER stress and PERK in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as cancer, CVD, kidney diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic target of ER stress and PERK for cancer treatment and the potential novel therapeutic targets for CVD, metabolic disorders, and neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibition of ER stress, by the development of small molecules that target the PERK and UPR, represents a promising therapeutic strategy.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number108604
Pages (from-to)108604
Number of pages1
JournalPharmacology & Therapeutics
Volume255
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2024

Keywords

  • Humans
  • eIF-2 Kinase/genetics
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome
  • Calcium/metabolism
  • Unfolded Protein Response
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy
  • Immunity
  • Seafood
  • Metabolic Diseases
  • Neoplasms/drug therapy

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