The COVID-19 pandemic's effect on established Chinese ethnic enclaves, which faced socio-economic disruptions as well as anti-Asian sentiment, is unknown. We compared the pandemic's effect on social capital among residents and non-residents of Chinese ethnic enclaves in Philadelphia. Despite declines in group participation and citizenship activity (joining with others or speaking with local officials to address a neighborhood problem), the pandemic increased support received from other individuals and cognitive social capital (e.g., neighborhood trust and sense of belonging), with more pronounced changes in enclaves. Our findings provide evidence of both greater vulnerability and resilience in terms of social capital among Chinese immigrants during the pandemic. Understanding the pandemic's effects on social capital in different neighborhood contexts can underscore communities’ strengths, and ways to improve resilience to future challenges.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100185
JournalWellbeing, Space and Society
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Enclave
  • Immigrant
  • Neighborhood
  • Social capital


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