Nanoparticles in tumor microenvironment remodeling and cancer immunotherapy

Qiang Lu, Dongquan Kou, Shenghan Lou, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Amir Reza Aref, Israel Canadas, Yu Tian, Xiaojia Niu, Yuzhuo Wang, Pedram Torabian, Lingzhi Wang, Gautam Sethi, Vinay Tergaonkar, Franklin Tay, Zhennan Yuan, Peng Han

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Cancer immunotherapy and vaccine development have significantly improved the fight against cancers. Despite these advancements, challenges remain, particularly in the clinical delivery of immunomodulatory compounds. The tumor microenvironment (TME), comprising macrophages, fibroblasts, and immune cells, plays a crucial role in immune response modulation. Nanoparticles, engineered to reshape the TME, have shown promising results in enhancing immunotherapy by facilitating targeted delivery and immune modulation. These nanoparticles can suppress fibroblast activation, promote M1 macrophage polarization, aid dendritic cell maturation, and encourage T cell infiltration. Biomimetic nanoparticles further enhance immunotherapy by increasing the internalization of immunomodulatory agents in immune cells such as dendritic cells. Moreover, exosomes, whether naturally secreted by cells in the body or bioengineered, have been explored to regulate the TME and immune-related cells to affect cancer immunotherapy. Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers, activated by pH, redox, and light conditions, exhibit the potential to accelerate immunotherapy. The co-application of nanoparticles with immune checkpoint inhibitors is an emerging strategy to boost anti-tumor immunity. With their ability to induce long-term immunity, nanoarchitectures are promising structures in vaccine development. This review underscores the critical role of nanoparticles in overcoming current challenges and driving the advancement of cancer immunotherapy and TME modification.

Original languageEnglish
Article number16
Pages (from-to)16
JournalJournal of Hematology and Oncology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2 2024


  • Bioengineered nanostructures; cancer immunotherapy
  • Immune evasion nanoparticles
  • Tumor microenvironment
  • Neoplasms/therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Tumor Microenvironment
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Nanoparticles/therapeutic use


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