Exploring the Engagement of Racial and Ethnic Minorities in HIV Treatment and Vaccine Clinical Trials: A Scoping Review of Literature and Implications for Future Research

Sarah Bauerle Bass, Paul D'Avanzo, Mohammed Alhajji, Nicole Ventriglia, Aurora Trainor, Laurie Maurer, Rebecca Eisenberg, Omar Martinez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

HIV disproportionately impacts US racial and ethnic minorities but they participate in treatment and vaccine clinical trials at a lower rate than whites. To summarize barriers and facilitators to this participation we conducted a scoping review of the literature guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies published from January 2007 and September 2019 were reviewed. Thirty-one articles were identified from an initial pool of 325 records using three coders. All records were then assessed for barriers and facilitators and summarized. Results indicate that while racial and ethnic minority participation in these trials has increased over the past 10 years, rates still do not proportionately reflect their burden of HIV infection. While many of the barriers mirror those found in other disease clinical trials (e.g., cancer), HIV stigma is a unique and important barrier to participating in HIV clinical trials. Recommendations to improve recruitment and retention of racial and ethnic minorities include training health care providers on the importance of recruiting diverse participants, creating interdisciplinary research teams that better represent who is being recruited, and providing culturally competent trial designs. Despite the knowledge of how to better recruit racial and ethnic minorities, few interventions have been documented using these strategies. Based on the findings of this review, we recommend that future clinical trials engage community stakeholders in all stages of the research process through community-based participatory research approaches and promote culturally and linguistically appropriate recruitment and retention strategies for marginalized populations overly impacted by HIV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-416
Number of pages18
JournalAIDS Patient Care and STDs
Volume34
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020

Keywords

  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Ethnicity
  • HIV Infections/drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data
  • Patient Participation/psychology
  • Patient Selection/ethics
  • Racial Groups
  • Vaccines/administration & dosage

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