Examining biopsychosocial predictors of risk for cognitive impairment among a racially diverse sample of men who have sex with men living with HIV

Casey D. Xavier Hall, Beth Okantey, Zhuo Meng, Crim Sabuncu, Brittany Lane, Eugenia Millender, Artur Queiroz, Jung Hyo Kim, Lorie Okada, Avrum Gillespie, Gina Simoncini, John ‘Jack’ P. Barile, Grace X. Ma, Frank ‘Frankie’ Y. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Cognitive decline among people living with HIV (PLWH) is growing concern as world populations become increasing older including higher proportions of PLWH. It is vitally important to understand psychosocial predictors of age-related cognitive decline men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV. Objectives: The current study seeks to examine psychosocial risk factors the contribute to the risk of age-related cognitive impairment as measured by Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia (CAIDE) score in a racially diverse sample of MSM living with HIV. Design: The present analysis utilizes data from the baseline (n = 196) and 6-month follow-up (n = 135) time points of a longitudinal cohort study of PLWH. Methods: Using a self-report survey, we examine the associations between psychosocial predictors (e.g. trauma, mental health, chronic pain, sleep disturbance, etc.) and risk of dementia using the CAIDE risk score. Analyses include linear and logistic regression. Results: In adjusted model stress, chronic pain, Black racial identity, and having a sexual identity that is bisexual or another category are all positively associated with CAIDE scores. Childhood sexual abuse history was negatively associated with CAIDE scores indicating a protective effect. Sleep disorder has a positive association with CAIDE scores after adjusting for the baseline CAIDE scores. Conclusion: These results indicate modifiable correlates of cognitive risk (stress and chronic pain). Interventions should seek to address these comorbid factors including the consideration of minority stress and stigma. Interventions should seek to reach Black and bisexual men living with HIV, including possible cultural tailoring to interventions and messaging. Lastly, future research should examine the impact of variation within childhood sexual abuse histories to better understand their association with cognitive impairment later in life. This may include considering the nature, severity, and potential treatment of trauma symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
StatePublished - Jan 1 2024


  • HIV
  • aging
  • cardiovascular
  • cognitive impairment
  • men who have sex with men


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