B-cell lineage neoplasms transdifferentiating into histiocytic/dendritic cell neoplasms: diversity, differentiation lineage, genomic alterations, and therapy:Report from the 2021 SH/eAHP workshop

Wenbin Xiao, Catalina Amador, James R. Cook, Magdalena Czader, Sandeep Dave, Ahmet Dogan, Amy Duffield, John Goodlad, Reza Nejati, German Ott, Mariusz Wasik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: To report findings from the 2021 Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology Workshop within the category of B-cell lineage neoplasms’ transdifferentiation into histiocytic/dendritic cell neoplasms (HDCNs). Methods: The workshop panel reviewed 29 cases, assigned consensus diagnoses, and summarized findings. Results: The specific diagnoses of transdifferentiated HDCN tumors were histiocytic sarcoma (16); Langerhans cell histiocytosis/sarcoma (5); indeterminate DC tumor (1); and HDCN, unclassifiable (1). Approximately one-third of the patients reviewed had follicular lymphoma; lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma; or another B-cell lymphoma, most commonly chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. There was a 3:1 preponderance toward women, median patient age was 60 years, and the median interval between the initial diagnosis of B-cell lineage neoplasm and HDCN was 4 to 5 years. The submitted cases have demonstrated substantial heterogeneity as well as overlapping immunophenotypic and other features. Comprehensive genomic DNA sequencing revealed alterations enriched in the MAPK pathway. Based on shared and distinct alterations seen in HDCNs and the preceding lymphomas, both linear and divergent clonal evolutionary pathways were inferred. Furthermore, RNA sequencing performed in a subset of cases yielded new insights into markers that could be useful for more precise cell lineage identification. The panel has thus proposed an updated algorithm for HDCN lineage assignment. The outcome of transdifferentiated HDCNs was poor, but the MAPK signaling pathway emerges as a potentially attractive therapeutic target. Conclusions: Transdifferentiated HDCNs demonstrate heterogeneity and pose diagnostic challenges with regard to exact classification, but the in-depth characterization of the submitted cases have added to our understanding of the secondary HDCNs transdifferentiated from B-cell lymphoma/leukemia. Continuous efforts focusing on deciphering the specific cell lineage and differentiation state of these tumors will be critical for their accurate classification. Comprehensive molecular characterization of HDCNs may be informative in this regard. With the list of novel pharmacologic inhibitors of the MAPK pathway continuing to expand, improved outcomes for HDCN can be expected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)522-537
Number of pages16
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Pathology
Volume159
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2023

Keywords

  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Lineage/genetics
  • Dendritic Cells
  • Female
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell/diagnosis
  • Lymphoma, Follicular/genetics
  • Middle Aged

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