Adjuvant Everolimus in Patients with Completely Resected, Very High-risk Renal Cell Carcinoma of Clear Cell Histology: Results from the Phase 3 Placebo-controlled SWOG S0931 (EVEREST) Trial

Primo N Lara, Catherine Tangen, Elisabeth I Heath, Shuchi Gulati, Mark N Stein, Maxwell Meng, Ajjai Shivaram Alva, Sumanta K Pal, Igor Puzanov, Joseph I Clark, Toni K. Choueiri, Neeraj Agarwal, Robert Uzzo, Naomi B Haas, Timothy W Synold, Melissa Plets, Ulka N Vaishampayan, Brian M Shuch, Seth Lerner, Ian M ThompsonChristopher W Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: EVEREST is a phase 3 trial in patients with renal cell cancer (RCC) at intermediate-high or very high risk of recurrence after nephrectomy who were randomized to receive adjuvant everolimus or placebo. Longer recurrence-free survival (RFS) was observed with everolimus (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-1.00; p = 0.051), but the nominal significance level (p = 0.044) was not reached. To contextualize these results with positive phase 3 trials of adjuvant sunitinib and pembrolizumab, we conducted a secondary analysis in a similar population of EVEREST patients with very high-risk disease and clear cell histology.

METHODS: Postnephrectomy patients with any clear cell component and very high-risk disease, defined as pT3a (grade 3-4), pT3b-c (any grade), T4 (any grade), or node-positive status (N+), were identified. A Cox regression model stratified by performance status was used to compare RFS and overall survival (OS) between the treatment arms.

KEY FINDINGS AND LIMITATIONS: Of 1499 patients, 717 had clear cell histology and very high-risk disease; 699 met the eligibility criteria, of whom 348 were randomized to everolimus arm, and 351 to the placebo arm. Patient characteristics were similar between the arms. Only 163/348 (47%) patients in the everolimus arm completed all treatment as planned, versus 225/351 (64%) in the placebo arm. Adjuvant everolimus resulted in a statistically significant improvement in RFS (HR 0.80; 95%CI 0.65-0.99, p = 0.041). Evidence of a survival benefit was not seen (HR 0.85; 95%CI 0.64-1.14, p = 0.3) CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: In patients with clear cell RCC at very high-risk for recurrence, adjuvant everolimus resulted in significantly improved RFS compared to placebo but resulted in a high discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Although the treatment HR for OS was consistent with RFS findings, it did not reach statistical significance. With a focus on risk stratification tools and/or biomarkers to minimize toxicity risk in those not likely to benefit, this information can help inform the design of future adjuvant trials in high-risk RCC PATIENT SUMMARY: We assessed treatment with everolimus in comparison to placebo after complete surgical removal of clear-cell kidney cancer at very high risk of recurrence. We found that survival outcomes were better for patients treated with everolimus, although these patients had a higher rate of side effects.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Urology
StateAccepted/In press - May 29 2024


  • Adjuvant
  • Everolimus
  • High risk
  • Kidney cancer


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