A Phase 1/2 Study to Evaluate the Safety and Activity of Nivolumab in Combination With Vorolanib, a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients With Refractory Thoracic Tumors

Kathryn E. Beckermann, Christine M. Bestvina, Badi El Osta, Rachel E. Sanborn, Hossein Borghaei, Philip Edward Lammers, Giovanni Selvaggi, Jennifer G. Whisenant, Ellen Heimann-Nichols, Lynne Berry, Chih Yuan Hsu, Yu Shyr, Leora Horn, Heather Wakelee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Targeting the tumor microenvironment may enhance response to immunotherapy (immune checkpoint inhibitors) and improve outcomes for patients. This study tested the safety and efficacy of vorolanib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and c-KIT, in combination with programmed cell death protein 1 blockade using nivolumab for refractory thoracic malignancies. Methods: This single-arm multicenter study enrolled patients with extensive-stage SCLC, thymic carcinoma, and NSCLC, either naive or had progressed on previous chemotherapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors (either primary or acquired resistance). The primary objective of phase 1 was to determine the maximum tolerated dose, and the primary end point for each dose-expansion cohort was the objective response rate. Results: A total of 88 patients were enrolled in phase 1 (n = 11) and dose expansion (n = 77) cohorts. Transaminitis was dose-limiting and expansion proceeded with oral vorolanib 200 mg daily combined with intravenous nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks. The objective response rate per cohort were as follows: NSCLC naive 33% (five of 15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13%–60%), NSCLC primary refractory 5.9% (one of 17, 95% CI: 0%–17.6%), NSCLC acquired resistance 11.1% (two of 18, 95% CI: 0%–27.8%); SCLC 0% (zero of 18), and thymic carcinoma 11% (one of nine, 95% CI: 0%–33%). Disease control rate ranged from 11.1% in SCLC (two of 18, 0%–27.8%) to 66.7 % in thymic carcinoma (six of nine, 95% CI: 33.3%–100%). The most common adverse events were fatigue (32%), aspartate transaminase (27%) and alanine transaminase elevation (25%), and diarrhea (19%). Transaminitis was more common in patients with thymic carcinoma than other tumors. Conclusions: Vorolanib plus nivolumab had a manageable safety profile and may have clinical benefits in various thoracic malignancies. The disease control rate in thymic malignancies warrants further assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100619
Pages (from-to)100619
JournalJTO Clinical and Research Reports
Volume5
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2024

Keywords

  • Anti-angiogenic
  • Lung cancer
  • Nivolumab
  • PD-1
  • Small cell
  • Thymic

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